We go specifically to the museum, to a concert, or to the Congress Centre. In the light of this, the feelings of a group of nineteen geography and spatial planning students who took part in a seven-hour study visit organised by the authors of this text and employees of the Silesian Museum in September are interesting even though, given the size of the sample, the results should be treated with caution. The students, who came from eight European countries, gave a high rating to the first impression made by the Culture Zone an average of 4.
Another feature that was appreciated was the existence of successful links to the cultural heritage of the site. Interestingly, none of the users criticised the extensive parking areas Photo 4 which fragment the space in the Zone and which are often highlighted by professionals as one of the greatest ills of the area T. Around — jobs linked to its basic operation security, cleaning, catering have been created within the Culture Zone 7.
Given its scale and nature, the former site of the Katowice coalmine is a unique example of brownfield regeneration in the post-Communist countries of East-Central Europe. When identifying the driving forces and mechanisms that underlie the transformation under discussion, it can be concluded that it was not a a fully aware, all-embracing plan.
In this context, the Culture Zone follows a unique development model, which has prevailed in Katowice for the last years, where each new period of development M. Gwosdz have distinguished 5 such phases has contributed to the creation of significant new landscape elements to testify to new prosperity and present day success.
Thus, paraphrasing J. The culture zone has a high and probably the greatest potential of all local and regional activities undertaken to date, to significantly change the image of the city and perhaps the whole Upper Silesia conurbation. Through its implementation and especially approach to public spaces surrounding the edifices, Katowice has become a benchmark of successful and innovative regeneration through prestige projects for other local governments in Poland. The Culture Zone is also a good model of public-public partnership at various levels of administration which is still rare in Central and Eastern Europe.
The spatial proximity of the high culture institution, the exhibition and conference venues and the sports and entertainment hall gave unexpected synergy effects to both these institutions and their surroundings. The Culture Zone has been diagnosed to include all the positive effects of flagship projects Tab. All in all, it is a successful undertaking given the external conditions under which it has been implemented, i.
Naturally, criticism of the Zone presented from perspectives other than the modernist paradigm is noteworthy, but it can be accused of idealism as it does not take into account the fact that the opportunities available are limited by the institutional, legal, financial and civilisational modalities under which urban and regeneration projects have been implemented in Poland after It is worth noting that ambitious projects, responsive to new urban and social trends or based on old good practice , do not go beyond the design stage, or are transformed in the course of being implemented into their own caricatures e.
Clarke Finally, in the context of the theory and practice of brownfield regeneration, it is worth mentioning four issues that arise in relation to the case analysed here:.
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Creating a new, internationally recognisable cultural identity and symbolism by a post-industrial metropolis is possible thanks to a high-quality architectural culture. The associated process produces path dependencies and self-reinforcing coupling, good architecture attracts other good projects there would be no Culture Zone, and especially no Green Valley, in the area, nor would they exist in their present form, were it not for Spodek. However, a new image and the attractive symbolism of a metropolis are not sufficient to create a city-like character of urban spaces.
The modernist paradigm has its inevitable limitations. In particular, the overarching objective should be to create good places and user-friendly public spaces. As is often the case, what is unintentional, created by chance, or is an effect of a non-completed investment projects, proves to be a success. The space you create can neither be monofunctional nor total in order to develop, it must be able to change by being oriented to spontaneous actions by its users. A creative or successful solution will never be produced by mere usually superficial duplication of success, but instead by a unique combination of its own resources and skill in taking advantage of the positive opportunities that appear in the surroundings.
Introduction In the last decade, we have been witnessing the regeneration of post—industrial sites brownfields in Polish cities by prestigious cultural buildings financed predominantly from public funds, with significant support from the European Union budget. Regeneration of brownfields through cultural flagships projects Flagship projects have been a preferred tool for the regeneration of degraded urban areas or entire urban conurbations in Western Europe since the s.
Table 1 Main arguments pro- and con- prestige projects Source: adopted from P. Much of the growth in employment which has resulted from the prestige projects is located in sectors of the economy characterised by low pay, part-time work and high vacancy turnover rates. The course of the regeneration process The site of the former Katowice shaft closed in , ca. Table 2 Public funds raised for the regeneration of the former Katowice coalmine site Source: compiled by the authors from www. Refurbishment and adaptation of 7 historic buildings of the Silesian Museum Discussion on the effects of the regeneration of the former Katowice coalmine to date Almost on the eve of the opening of the Culture Zone in , J.
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Conclusions Given its scale and nature, the former site of the Katowice coalmine is a unique example of brownfield regeneration in the post-Communist countries of East-Central Europe. Finally, in the context of the theory and practice of brownfield regeneration, it is worth mentioning four issues that arise in relation to the case analysed here: Creating a new, internationally recognisable cultural identity and symbolism by a post-industrial metropolis is possible thanks to a high-quality architectural culture.
Effective mechanisms for achieving the physical transformation of declining or previously neglected parts of urban areas. Are merely mechanisms for achieving the physical and economic regeneration of discrete parts of urban areas;. Positive externalities raising property values and development activity in adjoining areas. Prestige projects entail massive financial costs which tend to be wholly underwritten or heavily subsidised by the public sector. Provide high profile and visible symbolic evidence of success and renaissance, act as visible symbols of change.
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Represent an important or even essential place-marketing tool in the global inter-urban competition for private investment. Characterised by overambitious intentions on the part of project initiators or developers, and by high financial risk. Facilitate the physical restructuring of urban areas introducing and promoting new land uses and infrastructure. Planning of individual elements rather than integrated urban systems. Assist older cities previously dependent on declining industries to diversify their economic base. Prestige projects often entail the diversion of scarce public sector resources away from welfare-related needs such as social housing, education and social services and deprived neighbourhoods.
Provide benefits for all city residents also disadvantaged groups via the trickle-down process through the generation of wealth, jobs, an improved physical environment and new places to visit, admire and enjoy. There is little evidence that this process actually generates significant employment or other benefits for disadvantaged residents. Forthcoming content.
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Instructions for authors. Multi-user licences. Online version. Volume 13 Volume 12 Volume 11 Volume 10 Volume 9 Volume 8 Volume 7 Volume 6 Volume 5 Ever since it has been a topic of great interest to me. I then included biophilia as a guiding principle in the 2. Since then, I have watched the field of biophilic design evolve, gaining shape and definition and serious consideration on projects all over the globe.
As has happened in other areas of green building, the essence and scientific basis of biophilia is being lost in point tallying; right now, a design need only include superficial applications and check the right boxes to call itself biophilic. Just stick a few biophilic patterns into an interior design and you are done! But since that time, I have seen it misused and certainly misunderstood by many. This waters down and undermines the credibility of this fledgling design focus.
Explicitly pointing the biophilic design practitioner toward the more impactful patterns and interventions could improve the biophilic efficacy of many designs. As I have sat with this work and seen it used by design teams from multiple talented architecture firms around the country I have come to the following key conclusions. At face value, the Patterns describe a fairly complete framing of the topic, organized into three main categories: Nature in the Space, Natural Analogs, and Nature of the Space.
Some of the patterns, if applied in isolation, are likely not much more effective than a placebo and make little to no impact in negating the lack of environmental stimuli that biophilic design attempts to address. Further, the logic and justification for many of the patterns is built on the fact that their set of characteristics can be found in healthy, diverse, natural settings to which we need exposure.
However, these same sets of characteristics can also be found in unhealthy or otherwise unbiophilic environments as well.
It is important for the biophilic designer to understand that just because biophilic environments contain the components named in these patterns, those components do not necessarily add up to a positive. In other words, the mere presence of the patterns of biophilia are easily and often confused with their intended effect on experience.
This three-part article series attempts to add another layer to the groundwork laid by Terrapin Bright. Green—another lens through which we can assess the success of our work as biophilic designers.
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It is my hope that clearly naming what is essential to biophilia will engender a more nuanced understanding and ultimately more successful application of biophilic patterns and attributes to design. We need to focus on design strategies that actually have positive impacts and do more than merely justify a design through yet another trendy lens.
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All of this is to say we need to understand more clearly — what is foundational to biophilia and biophilic design really?