A Nature Research Journal. Topological design of materials enables topological symmetries and facilitates unique backscattering-immune wave transport 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , In airborne acoustics, however, the intrinsic longitudinal nature of sound polarization makes the use of the conventional spin—orbital interaction mechanism impossible for achieving band inversion.
The topological gauge flux is then typically introduced with a moving background in theoretical models 19 , 20 , 21 , Its practical implementation is a serious challenge, though, due to inherent dynamic instabilities and noise. Here we realize the inversion of acoustic energy bands at a double Dirac cone 15 , 27 , 28 and provide an experimental demonstration of an acoustic topological insulator.
Klitzing, K. New method for high-accuracy determination of the fine-structure constant based on quantized Hall resistance. Thouless, D. Quantized Hall conductance in a two-dimensional periodic potential.
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Hasan, M. Colloquium: topological insulators. Qi, X.
Topological insulators and superconductors. Haldane, F. Possible realization of directional optical waveguides in photonic crystals with broken time-reversal symmetry. Wang, Z. Observation of unidirectional backscattering-immune topological electromagnetic states. Nature , — Lu, L. Topological photonics. Hafezi, M. Robust optical delay lines with topological protection. Imaging topological edge states in silicon photonics. Rechtsman, M.
Photonic floquet topological insulators. Khanikaev, A. Photonic topological insulators. Chen, W. Experimental realization of photonic topological insulator in a uniaxial metacrystal waveguide. Experimental observation of Weyl points. Science , — Bliokh, K. Quantum spin Hall effect of light. Wu, L. Scheme for achieving a topological photonic crystal by using dielectric material. Observation of phononic helical edge states in a mechanical topological insulator. Science , 47—50 Wang, P. Topological phononic crystals with one-way elastic edge waves.
Mousavi, S. Topologically protected elastic waves in phononic metamaterials. Yang, Z.
Topological acoustics. Ni, X. Topologically protected one-way edge mode in networks of acoustic resonators with circulating air flow. New J.
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Topologically robust sound propagation in an angular-momentum-biased graphene-like resonator lattice. Fleury, R. Sound isolation and giant linear nonreciprocity in a compact acoustic circulator.
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Zhu, X. Topologically protected acoustic helical edge states and interface states in strongly coupled metamaterial ring lattices. Floquet topological insulators for sound. Xiao, M.
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These rail routes are expected to bring about the same level of urbanisation as seen in Japan when it developed the Shinkansen bullet train in the s. With Osaka as its main destination, the city urbanised rapidly. A similar effect will be seen in Thailand along with urbanisation of the provinces that lie in between these new routes.
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This approach will also result in a reduction of energy costs and time spent in traffic jams, and cut down on pollution. Over the past four years, the government has also initiated the first monorail projects in Thailand — the Pink and Yellow lines, and a light rail route serving as a feeder system to connect the Skytrain and subway.
Another project is the Golden Line, a small light rail-transit system in the Thon Buri area.
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It is also developing and encouraging city train projects in major towns such as Chiang Mai, Phuket and Khon Kaen. Yet, train infrastructure these days is more than just laying new tracks and operating the rolling stock. This shift has been made possible by the arrival of Big Data technology, which has led to the development of Intelligent Transport Systems ITS , in which artificial intelligence is used to analyse data mined from commuters to forecast trends, and even predict traffic.
Under ITS, information about traffic congestion and delays are collected in real-time and analysed by automated algorithms, which provide useful information that is used to manage traffic down to the smallest detail, such as when a traffic light should turn green during peak hours at key city intersections. Traffic data analysis technology will also help improve public transport service timetables.
Information will be relayed to smart transport signboards, which will display real-time updates so passengers can tell when the next bus or train will come just by looking at the signboard. As part of the development of the smart city idea, the government will install sensors and closed-circuit television cameras to collect and analyse data before sending it to smartphones or sharing it among connected vehicles. In the future, autonomous vehicles will be connected with this transport data collection, analysis and transmission system.
Each connected vehicle will be supplied with information useful for both ensuring safety on the road and navigation.
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One can already hail a taxi via an application and pay the fare via a QR Codebased smartphone payment system. Applications for checking routes and time tables of the electric rail system and those of the public buses are also available. Also planned to be launched next month is a new application to allow the use of digital currency and reward points to pay for goods and services at restaurants and shops at domestic airports under the jurisdiction of Airports of Thailand AoT.
Points collected and stored can also be redeemed and traded for a discount on airport services such as car hire, taxi rides and hotel bookings. The Spider Card, a common ticketing system Thailand is trying to implement, is another attempt to introduce more technology to the public transport system.